Montessori Pedagogy & Curriculum
Montessori Pedagogy - Montessori Enrichment - Montessori Curriculum & Methods
- The Montessorian Child - Montessorian World's Creation Child Program
Instructing the Child's Development

"Our goal is not so much the imparting of knowledge
as the unveiling and developing of spiritual energy"

- Dr Maria Montessori -

Montessori's programme is distinct - its focus being the instruction of the child's development … thus setting it apart from the other educational schemes where the ultimate goal is sheer scholastic achievement. What is it?
1. Appreciate the individual child

"The child is truly a miraculous being, and this should be felt deeply by the educator."
- Dr Maria Montessori-

Each child is unique and Montessori requires the teacher to have the mind of a scientist - to systematically observe each child under her direction and analyze the results based on the child's natural development. This enables the teacher to be in tune with every child which in turn allows her to address the specific needs of the individual. Therefore the direction and plans for a Montessori class - whether it be individual, group or collective presentations or activities - are directed by the particular requirements of each individual child in the environment. In a true Montessori class, there is a noticeable absence of a fixed timetable, no collective traditional style academic teaching and the teacher's presence does not dominate the environment … and yet, the environment remains calm and relaxed with each child spontaneously seeking his own occupation, all working harmoniously together.
2. The Joy of Work

"An interesting piece of work, freely chosen,
which has the virtue of inducing concentration rather than fatigue,
adds to the child' energies and mental capacities, and leads him to self-mastery"
- Dr Maria Montessori -

In the Montessori class, the child works to perfect himself from within using the environment as his resource … as he development progress, so too does his creative interaction with his environment. Montessori makes available to the child many apparatus (e.g. Pink Tower, Geometric Shapes, Trinomial Cubes, etc.) which embodies various concepts to be mastered. By working with these apparatus, the self-educating child unconsciously extracts the abstract idea of the concept from the concrete impression of the material. Traditional rote learning and 'spoon-feeding' by the teacher makes way for instruction based on self-discovery.
3. Montessori Curriculum: The Creation of the Adult

"… the most important part of life is not the age of university studies,
but … the period from birth to the age of six.
For that is the time when a man's intelligence itself,
his greatest implement, is being formed.
But not only his intelligence; the full totality of his psychic powers."
- Dr Maria Montessori -

To facilitate the child in his role as the creator of the adult who is a contributing member of society, Montessori provides for an instruction which is all-embracing - a balance between development, learning, curriculum and teaching.
a. Skills development - e.g. motor skills, practical living skills, sensorial perceptions, thinking skills, etc
b. Emotional development - e.g. the inner will, character and personality, social skills and moral conduct, etc.
c.Intellectual development - e.g. a solid base in language, arts and math and cultural studies on physical and cultural geography, zoology, botany, physical science, earth science, astronomy, history, art, music and dance.

4. Spontaneous Self-Discipline

"Discipline, the first result of an order establishing itself within,
is the principal phenomenon to be looked for as the 'external sign' of an internal process that has been initiated."
- Dr Maria Montessori

In many classrooms, it is the teacher who plays a dominant role in calling the children to order and setting them tasks - she alone decides the type and duration of work as well as inducing them to complete the prescribed tasks. However, Montessori's programme is entirely the reverse - the adult helps the child to acquire self-discipline by satisfying his need to freely (but within limits) choose his own occupation without interrupting his spontaneous activity. There are no threats, rewards nor punishments.
5. The Montessori Environment

"The first aim of the prepared environment is, as far as possible,
to render the growing child independent of the adult"
- Dr Maria Montessori -

The Montessori class is prepared, furnished and equipped so as to allow the child to perfect himself through his own efforts … as the child becomes increasingly active in directing his own actions, he attains an awareness of his own abilities. Thus the Montessori classroom is attractive and orderly; occupied by things which assists the child's development. Things which are obstacles or irrelevant are specifically excluded.
6. Montessori Materials

" When the materials have been constructed with great precision,
they provoke a spontaneous so coordinated and so harmonious with the facts of internal development."
- Dr Maria Montessori

Based on her scientific observation and study of the natural development of the child, Montessori created many apparatus aimed at the specific developmental needs of the child.
8. Respecting the Child

"The child is truly a miraculous being,
and this should be felt deeply by the educator"
- Dr Maria Montessori -

The Montessori teacher links the child to the Montessori environment through positive and dynamic means. A Montessorian does not interfere when the child is working nor does she substitute her will for that of the child. The child is always accorded due respect … "put downs", sarcasm, humiliation and embarrassment are eliminated.
7. Montessori Directress

"We must be taught and we must be willing to accept guidance
if we wish to become effective teachers"
- Dr Maria Montessori -

Montessori teachers must attain the love of a saint, being patient and self sacrificing; the heart of a servant, possessing humility and a willing to give to serve; and the mind of a scientist that is intellectual and learned in order to guide the child formation.

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